French Influence on English language pdf

French Influence on English language pdf 

French Influence on English language pdf
French Influence 

French Influence on English language pdf:-

The year 1066 was a landmark in the history of England. In that year, Norman Conquest took place. The British administration was taken over by the French. The French ruled England for several centuries. As a result, English language and vocabulary were influenced and enriched by French language. The impact of French language on English vocabulary may be analysed thus.

The English people borrowed a good number of French words that are related to government, administration and politics. In this realm, only two words are English. They are king and queen. The other words are mostly French. The examples are- state, sovereign, council, crown, government, realm power, minister etc. Feudalism was originated in France. Hence the words relating to feudalism are French. The instances are prince, peer, court, noble, honour, glory.

The French had military power. For this, the English people borrowed several military words from French stock. Such words are- battle, war, peace, army, navy officer. Again, the French was a law-abiding nation. As a result, many law-terms have been borrowed by the English people. The examples are- jury, justice, judge, summon, crime etc.

Many ecclesiastical words, have been borrowed from the French stock. The examples are- religion, service, savior, saint, angel save, tempt, trinity, miracle etc. Again, the words related to moral ideas are mostly French. Such words are- duty, Vice, charity, mercy, pity, virtue desire, discipline, grace, cruel etc.

The words that denote relations in society are French. The examples are- sir and madam, master and mistress, command and obey, rich and poor. Besides, the words relating to family relationship are mostly French. The instances are aunt, uncle, nephew, niece. It should be admitted that the words like- father and mother are English.

History tells us that the French was fond of drinking and eating. As a result, the words relating to food and cooking are mostly French. The examples are- sauce, boil, fry, roast, pastry, soup etc. another interesting point is that the names of the animals are English. But when they are served as cooked meat, their name become French. For instance- sheep is English but, mutton is French. Beef is the cooked flesh of ox. The French people knew how to enjoy leisure. As a consequence, the words like- joy, pleasure, comfort, ease are of French origin. Besides, the Norman masters used to indulge themselves into various sports and games. So, the words like- chess, falcon, track, cards are of French origin.

The Normans were noble for their dress and fashion. For this, a large scale of borrowing took place in this regard. Some of the words relating to dress and fashion are- apparel, dress, garment, fashion, luxury etc. Again, the Normans had fascination for art, architecture and artisans. The result was that English people borrowed countless words in this direction. The examples are- art, beauty, colour, image, design, figure, pillar, vault, column, tailor, carpenter, painter etc. Again, the words of everyday expression had been borrowed from French stock. The instances are- alas, sure, cry, cheer etc.

To conclude, the above survey enables to apprehend the fact that English language and vocabulary were enriched highly by French influence. Not only the intellectuals but the common people also began to use so many French words in their everyday conversation. But, the large scale of borrowing stunted the independent growth of English language and vocabulary. In a word, French influence was a help and a hindrance at the same time.

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